Enforcement Rules of the
Trademark Law

Announced on Dec. 30, 1930 by the Ministry of Industry

Amended & Announced on Sep. 3, 1932 by the Ministry of Industry

Amended & Announced on Jan. 8, 1947 by the Ministry of Industry

Amended & Announced on March 18, 1960 by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA)

Amended & Announced on June 13, 1973 by the MOEA Order

Amended & Announced on May 6, 1982 by the MOEA Order

Amended & Announced on Oct. 19, 1987 by the MOEA Order

Amended & Announced on Oct. 23, 1991 by the MOEA Order

Amended & Announced on July 15, 1994 by the MOEA Order

Amended & Announced on Sep.15, 1999 by the MOEA Order

Article 1 Foundation

Article 2 Standard forms required

Article 3 Compliance with procedural or formality requirements

Article 4 Certificate of Identity/Corporation

Article 5 Need to prove applicant's connection with the "trade"

Article 6 Application filed with claim for foreign priority

Article 7 Evidence of "secondary meaning"

Article 8 Representation by agent or attorney

Article 9 Service by publication

Article 10 Certificate of Registration

Article 11 Reissuance of Certificate of Registration

Article 12 Certified copies of official records

Article 13 Time limit for claiming exhibits and other articles

Article 13-1 Amendment to change details of approved or registered trademark

Article 14 Certain official records not open to the public

Article 15 Tests of "similar trademark", "similar goods/services" and "goods/services of related nature

Article 16 Relations between principal trademark and associated trademark or defensive trademark

Article 17 Amendment to change trademark to different category

Article 17-1 Amendment to change principal trademark

Article 18  (Deleted)

Article 19 General requisites of renewal application

Article 20 Formality requirements for license recordation

Article 21 Termination of license

Article 22 Trademark registration: formality requirements for assignment recordation

Article 23 Formality requirements for recordation of trademark-related pledge

Article 24 Formality requirements for cancellation petition

Article 25 Contents of Decision on cancellation petition

Article 26 Effective date of lapse of exclusive rights

Article 27 General requisites of trademark application; filing date

Article 28 Disclaimer

Article 29 Applicability of Classification of Goods after effective date of these Revised Rules

Article 30 Failure to reach agreement in due time

Article 31 Applicability of Article 37(7)

Article 32 Applicability of Article 37(11)

Article 33 (Deleted)

Article 34 Trademark application: formality requirements for assignment recordation

Article 35 Contents of Notice of Allowance

Article 36 Applicability of other provisions

Article 37 Contents of Office Action

Article 38 Provisions relating to opposition

Article 39 Applicability of other provisions

Article 40 Applicability of new and old Trademark Laws

Article 41 Definition

Article 42 Definition

Article 43 General requisites of certification mark application

Article 44 Definition of "certification mark use"

Article 45 General requisites of collective mark application

Article 46 Definition of "collective mark use"

Article 47 Inadequate use of certification mark and collective mark

Article 48 Term of trademark registrations granted under old Trademark Law

Article 49 Classification of Goods and Services

Article 50 Uniformity of provisions

Article 51 Effective date  

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APPENDIX:Classification of Goods and Services

Article 1

These Enforcement Rules are enacted pursuant to the provisions of Article 78 of the Trademark Law (hereinafter referred to as "the Law").

Article 2

Various applications filed under the Law or these Enforcement Rules shall be submitted in the forms printed by the Government Office in charge of trademark matters together with all necessary supporting documents to the Government Office in charge of trademark matters.

Applications or other articles submitted shall be indicated thereon with the name of the trademark, the class and the name of goods designated for use of the trademark, the name, title, address, domicile, or place of business or office address of the applicant. If the trademark has already been registered or application for registration of the trademark has already been approved, the registration number or approval number thereof shall also be indicated thereon.

Article 3

Where various applications for trademark are in violation of procedures or formalities specified in relevant laws and regulations and such violation can be corrected, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall notify the applicant to take corrective action within a given time limit.

lll If the applicant completes the corrective action within the time limit given under the preceding Paragraph, the date on which the original application was filed shall still be considered the filing date of the application.

Article 4

In respect of application for trademark registration, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters, if it deems necessary, may notify the applicant to submit his certificate of nationality or certificate of juristic person.

The certificates as set forth in the preceding paragraph or other documents written in foreign languages shall be accompanied with Chinese translation thereof.

Article 5

The business as set forth in Article 2 of the Law may be determined pursuant to the following items :

1.  The business items contained in company registration;

2.  The business items contained in business registration;

3.  The business items contained in registration of profit-seeking enterprises;

4.  A concrete business plan;

5.   Resolutions made at shareholders meeting;

6.  Other relevant evidence.

If registration of profit-seeking enterprises is not required by law or facts, relevant documents submitted may be used as reference for determination.

Article 6

If the priority claim is granted, the date of the initial application for registration of the trademark in the foreign country shall be the date of application for trademark registration in the Republic of China. The result of examination of application in the foreign country shall have no impact on the granted priority.

Article 7

The applicant of trademark registration, who claims the application of Paragraph Two, Article 5 of the Law shall submit relevant evidence to prove it.

Article 8

As appointed trademark agent shall submit a power of attorney specifying powers delegated to the agent.

In case of death or loss of disposing capacity of a trademark agent appointed under Paragraph Two, Article 9 of the Law and failure of the principal to appoint another trademark agent, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters may notify the applicant to appoint another trademark agent within a given time limit. In case of failure to effect so within the given time limit, service of the documents thereof shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of Article 15 of the Law. When the applicant is notified to effect a change of trademark agent under Paragraph Three, Article 9 of the Law, such notification shall also be served on the original agent. All necessary acts as set forth in Article 10 of the Law include the power of receiving on behalf of the principal any document and notification from the Government Office in charge of trademark matters.

Article 9

The phrase that the service of the documents cannot be effected as set forth in Article 15 of the Law, means that the service of documents to the address of the residence or domicile, office or business place of the recipient recorded with the Government Office in charge of trademark matters, cannot be effected.

Article 10

A trademark registration certificate shall have a facsimile of the trademark affixed thereto, and shall be stamped with the official seal of and issued by the Government Office in charge of trademark matters.

Article 11

If a trademark registration certificate is lost or damaged, the owner of the right of exclusive use of the mark may submit a statement of facts supported by documentary evidence, and apply for issuance of a replacement certificate. When a replacement certificate is issued pursuant to the provisions of the preceding Paragraph, the original registration certificate shall be nullified through a public notice.

Article 12

Any document copied by or any design imitated and given by the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall bear a statement to the effect that it is a true and identical copy of the original.

Article 13

If the person submitting documentary evidence and articles relating to trademarks makes a statement in advance that he will repossess the same, such repossession shall be effected within thirty days after the particular case has been finally concluded.

Article 13-1

When applying for recordation of the change of the particulars of an approved trademark, a registered trademark or other matters, except for the circumstances as set forth in Articles 17 and 17bis, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1. Application form;

2. Documents which certify the change; and

3. Trademark registration certificate if any changes need to be indicated on the trademark registration certificate.

Article 14

What particulars should be kept confidential as set forth in Article 20 of the Law shall be determined by the Government Office in charge of trademark matters based on the following matters:

1.  Being business secret or personal privacy.

2.  Internal comments and/or instructions of the Government Office in charge of trademark matters.

Article 15

Judgment of similarity between trademarks shall be based on whether a buyer with common knowledge and experience, who exercises a normal level of attention when shopping, is likely to be confused by or misidentify the trademarks.

Judgment of similar goods shall be based on the relevant factors such as general concepts in the society, trading situations in the market, and the raw materials, usages, functions, manufacturers, marketing channels and locations, or purchasers of the goods.

Judgment of similar services shall be based on the relevant factors such as general concepts in the society, trading situations in the market, and the nature, contents, providers, marketing channels and places or target consumers of the services.

Judgment of goods or services of related nature shall be based on whether there is a necessity in the industrial and commercial operations to apply for registration of a defensive trademark or a defensive service mark.

Article 16

In applying for registration of an associated trademark or a defensive trademark in accordance with Article 22 of the Law, the applicant shall submit a photocopy of notice of approval or registration certificate of the principal mark, if the principal trademark has already been approved or registered.

The registration certificate of an associated or a defensive trademark shall be marked with the registration number of the principal mark.

The person who files an application for registration of a defensive trademark and claims such mark being a famous trademark shall have the burden of proof.

If a principal trademark is cancelled or invalidated, all of its associated and defensive trademarks shall be cancelled simultaneously. Where approved associated trademark or approved defensive trademarks are not assigned together with their principal trademark, such approvals shall be revoked.

Article 17

The change of the type of a trademark as set forth in Paragraph Four, Article 22of the Law shall mean the following situation:

1.  Change of principal trademark to associated or defensive trademark.

2.  Change of associated or defensive trademark to principal trademark.

3.  Change of associated trademark to defensive trademark.

4.  Change of defensive trademark to associated trademark.

Application for change of the type of a trademark shall be made by submission of an application form with an indication of relevant numbers and the notice of approval or registration certificate if the trademark has been approved or registered.

In respect of change of the type of a trademark, the scope of the right of exclusive use and the term thereof shall remain the same as originally registered. In case the term of exclusive use of an associated or a defensive mark after change exceeds that of the principal mark, the associated or defensive mark shall take the term of the principal mark as its own term.

Article 17-1

Application for change of the principal trademark of an associated trademark or a defensive trademark shall be made by submission of an application form with an indication of relevant serial numbers, and the notice of approval or the trademark registration certificate if the principal trademark has been approved or registered.

For the associated trademark or defensive trademark which seeks for change of its principal trademark as set forth in the preceding paragraph, the scope and the term of the right to exclusive use of such associated or defensive trademark shall remain the same as those originally registered. If after the change, such term exceeds the term of the right to exclusive use of the principal trademark, it shall be shortened to expire on the same date as the principal mark.

Article 18

(Deleted)

Article 19

In applying for renewal of the term of the right to exclusive use of a trademark, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1. Application form;

2.  Trademark registration certificate;

3.  Ten facsimiles of the trademark design;

4.   For an application which is filed prior to the expiration of the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark, a declaration stating the use of the trademark within three years prior to the filing of the application; for an application which is filed after the expiration of the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark, a declaration stating the use of the trademark within three years prior to the expiration of the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark; if the mark is not used for any good cause, such cause shall also be indicated thereon; and

5.  Other necessary documents.

The provisions of Item (4) of the preceding paragraph shall not apply to a defensive mark.

Upon approval of a renewal registration application, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall make a note of the particulars of the renewal on the trademark registration certificate and return the certificate to the applicant.

Article 20

In applying for recordation of licensing another person to use a trademark, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1.  Application form; and

2.  A photocopy of the trademark license agreement.

The applicant shall submit the following documents for applying for recordation of sublicensing another person to use a trademark:

1. Application form;

2. A photocopy of the trademark sublicense agreement; and

3.  Documents proving that the owner of the right to exclusive use of a trademark agrees to the sublicense.

The applicant may submit the trademark registration certificate to have the particulars of the license or sublicense indicated on such certificate.

The goods on which the trademark concerned is licensed to be used and the term of license shall be limited to the scope of the right to exclusive use of such trademark. If the term of license as agreed exceeds the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark, the expiration date of the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark shall be the expiration date of the term of such license. If the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark is renewed, an additional application for recordation of the license shall be filed.

The goods on which the trademark concerned is sublicensed to be used and the term of sublicense shall not exceed both the scope of the goods on which the trademark is originally licensed to be used and the term of the license.

Article 21

During the term of a trademark license, an application for termination of recordal of such license may be filed together with relevant evidence under any one of the following circumstances:

1.  Both parties agree to termination. The same provision shall also apply in the case of sub-license.

2.  One party intends to terminate and the other party raises no objection.

3. Where the agreement clearly provides that either party may unilaterally terminate the agreement with no reason to be given, expression of termination is so made.

4.  The license is terminated by a court judgement or a settlement or a conciliation.

5. The license is terminated by a commercial arbitration award.

Article 22

In applying for recordation of assignment of the right of exclusive use of a trademark, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1. Application form.

2.  An identity certificate of the assignee and relevant business documentation.

3.  A photocopy of assignment agreement or other evidential document of the assignment.

4.  Registration certificate.

Upon recordation of the assignment as set forth in the preceding Paragraph, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall make a note about the particulars of the assignment on the trademark registration certificate and return the same to the applicant.

Article 23

In applying for recordation of creating a pledge on the right to exclusive use of a trademark, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1.  Application form;

2.  An Identification Certificate from the pledgee;

3.  A photocopy of the pledge agreement which shall state the name and registration number of the trademark, the amount of liability and the term of the pledge; and

4. Trademark registration certificate.

Upon recordation of creating a pledge as set forth in the preceding Paragraph, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall make a note of the particulars of the pledge on the trademark registration certificate and return the same to the applicant.

The term of the pledge shall be limited to the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark. If the term of the pledge as agreed exceeds the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark, the expiration date of the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark shall be the expiration date of the term of the pledge. In case the term of the right to exclusive use of the trademark is renewed, an additional application for recordation of the pledge shall be filed.

In applying for recordation of extinguishment of a pledge, the applicant shall submit the trademark registration certificate and liability discharge certificate or any document proving that both parties agree to cancel the recordation of the pledge.

Article 24

In applying for cancellation of the right of exclusive use of a trademark of another person, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1.  Application form (with a duplicate).

2.  An identity certificate of the applicant.

3.   Two sets of relevant evidence.

The application form as set forth in Item 1 of the preceding Paragraph shall state the reasons and facts of constituting cancellation of the right of exclusive use of a trademark. The Government Office in charge of trademark matters, when sending out a notice requesting for defense, shall provide the duplicate of the application form and relevant evidence to the owner of the right of exclusive use of the trademark or his trademark agent.

Article 25

The decision of cancelling the right of exclusive use of a trademark shall contain the following information:

1. Registration number and name of the trademark and goods designated for use of the trademark.

2.  Name or title and address of the applicant, and the name of representative if the applicant is a juristic person.

3. Name or title and address of the owner of the right of exclusive use of the trademark, and the name of representative if the owner is a juristic person.

4. Name and address of appointed trademark agent, if any.

5.  Subject and reasons.

6. Date of decision.

Article 26

In the case of natural extinguishment of the right to exclusive use of a trademark pursuant to the provisions of Article 34 of the Law, the date of extinguishment shall be as follows:

1.  The date following the expiration date of the term of the right to exclusive use of a trademark if the application for renewal of such term is not made pursuant to Article 25 of the Law; and

2. The time of death, in case of the death of the owner, without an heir, of the right to exclusive use of a trademark.

In determining whether the right to exclusive use of a trademark shall be naturally extinguished, provisions in force at the time when the events which may cause such extinguishment to occur shall apply.

Article 27

In applying for registration of a trademark under the Law, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1.  Application form specifying in accordance with Article 49 hereof class and name(s) of goods.

2. Fifteen facsimiles of the trademark design and, in case of colored facsimile, three additional black and white facsimiles thereof, all made on strong, durable and clean paper and not larger than 5 centimeters in length and width.

3.  The relevant document(s) proving the business of the applicant.

The provisions of Item (3) of the preceding Paragraph shall not apply to a defensive mark.

The date of an application for trademark registration shall be the date on which the application accompanied by the trademark design and specifying the class and name(s) of goods is duly served to the Government Office in charge of trademark matters or the date as stamped on the mail by post office if the application is delivered by mail.

If, before examination of the trademark application is concluded, an application for amendment of the names of goods designated for use of the trademark or the trademark design is filed, the date of the application for such amendment shall be considered the filing date of the application for registration of the trademark, provided, however, an application for reduction of items of designated goods shall not affect the date of the application.

Article 28

In case a trademark design contains words or drawings which are descriptive or non-distinctive but deletion of such portion will make the design become incomplete and the applicant claims that said portion is not for exclusive use, such a trademark design may be applied for registration.

Examination of whether a trademark design mentioned in the preceding Paragraph is identical with or similar to a trademark design of another person shall still be based on the overall contents of said design.

Article 29

For trademarks already approved or registered prior to the amendment of these Enforcement Rules, the classes of goods to which such trademarks are designated for use shall be limited to those approved or registered.

For trademarks already filed but pending for approval prior to amendment of these Enforcement Rules, examination and approval shall be made in accordance with the classification of goods when filing the application.

Article 30

When an agreement by and between/among applicants concerned is required under the provisions of Article 36 of the Law, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall notify the applicants to reach an agreement within a specified reasonable time. In case no agreement is reached within the time limit, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall notify the applicants to take part in a lot-drawing at the designated date and place to have the matter resolved.

Article 31

The term "famous mark" as set forth in Article 37(7) of the Law refers to a mark which is commonly recognized by the industries concerned or consumers based on the available concrete evidence. The term "licensor" referred to in the proviso of Article 37(7) of the Law means the party who has the consent of the owner of a mark to license another party to apply for registration of mark.

Article 32

With regard to Item (11), Paragraph One, Article 37 of the Law, the expression "the name of another juristic person, organization, or nationally famous firm" shall refer to the specific part thereof and the expression "the goods covered by the scope of business of such firm or juristic person" shall mean the business items registered by the firm or juristic person, or the items handled in actual business operation by the firm or juristic person, if no specific goods are designated in the registered business scope.

When a previously registered juristic person takes a specific part of its name as its trademark design and applies for registration thereof, and if said design is identical with the specific part of the name of a subsequently registered juristic person, and the goods designated by the previously registered juristic person for use of its trademark and the goods transacted by the subsequently registered juristic person are the same or similar, consent from the subsequently registered juristic person shall still be solicited.

The word "nationally" as set forth in Item (11), Paragraph One, Article 37 of the Law shall refer to the territory currently under the jurisdiction of ROC laws.

Article 33

(Deleted)

Article 34

For assignment of the right of application under Article 38 of the Law, the applicant shall submit the following documents:

1.  Application form

2.  An identity certificate of the assignee and relevant business documentation.

3.  A photocopy of assignment agreement or other evidential document of the assignment.

Article 35

A decision of approval as set forth in Article 41 of the Law shall contain the following information:

1.  Name/title and address of the applicant.

2.  Name and address of the appointed trademark agent, if any.

3.  Name of the trademark.

4.  Application number and the number of the principal trademark, if any.

5.  Subject and explanation of the decision.

6.  Approval date.

Article 36

Provisions in Article 24 hereof shall apply mutatis mutandis to application for revocation of approval under Article 42 of the Law and provisions of Article 25 hereof shall apply mutatis mutandis to a decision of revocation of approval to be made by the Government Office in charge of trademark matters.

Article 37

A decision of rejection as set forth in Article 43 of the Law shall contain the following information:

1.  Name/title and address of the applicant.

2.  Name and address of the appointed trademark agent, if any.

3.  Name and design of the trademark and class of goods designated for use of the trademark.

4.  Application number.

5.  Subject and explanation of rejection.

6.  Rejection number and date.

Article 38

A person when filing written opposition under Article 46 of the Law shall submit the following documents:

1.  Opposition form (with a duplicate).

2.  Identity certificate of the opposer.

3.  Two sets of relevant evidence.

The opposition form as set forth in Item (1) of the preceding Paragraph shall state facts and reasons of opposition.

The Government Office in charge of trademark matters, when sending out a notice requesting for defense, shall provide the duplicate of opposition form and relevant evidence to the applicant of trademark registration and his trademark agent.

In case the facts and reasons in respect of the opposition is not clear or incomplete, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall notify the opposer to supplement and/or correct within a given time limit. During the period of publication of the approved trademark, the opposer may change or make additions to the facts or reasons.

In case of any change, addition, or correction as set forth in the preceding Paragraph, the Government Office in charge of trademark matters shall notify the applicant of trademark registration and its trademark agent to present a defense.

Article 39

The provisions of the preceding Article hereof shall apply to application for review under Article 52 of the Law.

The provisions of Article 25 hereof shall apply mutatis mutandis to an opposition decision and a review decision.

Article 40

In handling cases of trademark opposition, review, and cancellation proceedings, following principles shall govern in respect of applicability of provisions of the Law before and after amendment:

1.  Provisions in force at the time of decision making shall apply to trademark opposition proceedings.

2.  Provisions in force at the time of trademark registration shall apply to trademark review proceedings, provided, however, that provisions in force at the time of examination and decision making shall apply to such filing procedures of requesting a review.

3.  Provisions in force at the time of examination and decision making shall apply to trademark cancellation proceedings.

Article 41

Application for review of the scope of the right of exclusive use of the mark as set forth in Article 54 of the Law shall refer to the situation that the trademark design or the registered scope of the right of exclusive use of the trademark on designated goods is not clear and needs to be determined.

Article 42

"If deem necessary" as set forth in Paragraph One, Article 56 of the Law shall refer to the case that the reviewers can not make a decision of the review just based on the papers submitted and deem it necessary to let parties concerned make an oral debate so that a decision can be made.

Article 43

In applying for registration of a certification mark, the applicant shall submit an application form providing the following information:

1.  The goods or service to be certified.

2.  Contents of certification by the mark.

3.  Conditions for labeling the certification mark.

4.  Applicant's qualification or capability to certify.

5.  Manners controlling the use of the certification mark.

6.   Declaration made by the applicant that he does not engage in manufacture and marketing of goods or providing of services to be certified.

Where the certification mark has already been put into use at the time of application for registration, evidence of use shall be submitted, otherwise a plan of use shall be required.

Article 44

Use of a certification mark shall refer to, with the intention to certify the feature, quality, precision degree, or other matters of goods or services, indication of such mark on the articles relating to the goods or services as certification.

Article 45

In applying for registration of a collective mark, the applicant shall submit an application form providing the following information:

1.  Organization and qualification of members of the applicant.

2.  Manner controlling the use of the collective mark.

Where a collective mark has already been put into use at the time of application for registration, evidence of use shall be submitted, otherwise a plan of use shall be submitted.

Article 46

Use of a collective mark shall refer to, in order to distinguish an organization or membership thereof, indication of such mark by the organization or its members on relating articles or documents.

Article 47

"Inappropriate use" as set forth in Article 76 of the Law shall mean the following situations:

1.   A certification mark is used as a trademark or service mark or used on the goods or services of its own by the owner of the right of exclusive use of the mark.

2.  The owner of the right of exclusive use of a certification mark discriminates against applicants for certification or allows use of a certification mark without verification or knowing that the user is not qualified to use it except otherwise provided in law.

3.  The use of a collective mark leads to misidentification of the nature of an organization by the public.

4.  Any assignment, license, or pledge is made in violation of Article 75 of the Law.

5.  Violation of the method of control of use of a mark.

6.  To use a mark with an intent to delude.

7.  Other use by inappropriate methods.

Article 48

Where the right of exclusive use of a trademark was obtained prior to amendment of the Law, the term of exclusive use of the trademark shall remain the same as that originally approved.

Article 49

In application for registration of a trademark or a service mark, the classes of the goods or services shall be designated and the names of the same shall be specified according to the Table of Classification of Goods and Services.

Article 50

Provisions set forth herein in respect of trademarks shall apply mutatis mutandis to service marks, certification marks and collective marks as the case may be.

Article 51

These Enforcement Rules shall come into force from the date of promulgation.

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Table of Classification of Goods and Services

GOODS

Class 1

Chemicals used in industry, science, photography, agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; manures; fire extinguishing compositions; tempering and soldering preparations; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; tanning substances; adhesive substances used in industry.

Class 2

Paints (dyestuffs), varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust and against deterioration of wood; coloring matters; mordants; unprocessed natural resins; metals in foil and powder form for painters, decorators, printers and artists.

Class 3

Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry use; cleaning, polishing, scouring (dirt removing) and abrasive preparations; soaps; perfumery (flavoring and aromatic materials); essential oils; cosmetics; hair lotions; dentifrices.

Class 4

Industrial oils and greases; lubricants; articles for dirt absorbing, wetting and cohering; fuels (including motor spirit) and oils for lighting, candles, wicks.

Class 5

Pharmaceutical, veterinary and sanitary substances; dietetic substances for medical use, infant's foods; medicated plasters, material for bandaging; material for stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparations for killing weeds and destroying vermin.

Class 6

Common metals and their alloys; metallic building materials; transportable metallic buildings; metallic materials for railway tracks; cables and wires (non-electric); iron articles, small hardware; metallic pipes and tubes; safes and cash boxes; common metal products not included in other classes; ores.

Class 7

Machines and machine tools: motors and engines (except for land vehicles); machine couplings and transmission parts (except for land vehicles); agricultural implements; incubators for eggs.

Class 8

Hand tools and instruments (hand operated); scissors and cutlery, forks and spoons; side arms; razors.

Class 9

Scientific, nautical, surveying, electrical apparatus and instruments, photographic, cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring, signalling, checking (supervision), life-saving and teaching apparatus and instruments; implements for recording, transmitting or reproducing (regenerating) sound or video; magnetic data carriers, recording magnetic discs; auto-vending machines and mechanisms for coin-operated (controlled) apparatus; cash registers, calculating machines and data processing equipment; fire extinguishing apparatus.

Class 10

Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary instruments and apparatus, artificial limbs, eyes and teeth; orthopedic articles; suture materials.

Class 11

Installations for lighting, heating, steam generating, cooking, refrigerating, drying, ventilating, water supply, and sanitary purposes.

Class 12

Vehicles (means of transportation); apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water.

Class 13

Firearms; ammunition and projectiles; explosive substances; fireworks.

Class 14

Precious metals and their alloys and goods in previous metals or coated therewith not included in other classes; jewellery, precious stones; horological and other chronometric instruments.

Class 15

Musical instruments.

Class 16

Paper, cardboard and products thereof not included in other classes; printed matter; book-binding material, photographs; stationery; adhesive materials (stationery or family use); artists' materials; paint brushes; typewriters and office requisites (other than furniture); instructional and teaching materials (other than apparatus); plastic articles for packing (not included in other classes); playing cards; printers' type and cliches (stereotype).

Class 17

Rubber, gutta percha, gum, asbestos, mica and articles made from these substances and not included in other classes; plastic in extruded form for use in manufacture; materials for packing, stopping and insulating; hose pipes (non-metallic).

Class 18

Leather and imitations of leather, and articles made from these materials and not included in other classes; hides; trunks and travelling cases; umbrellas, parasols and walking sticks; whips, harness and saddlery.

Class 19

Building materials (non-metallic), non-metallic rigid pipes for construction use; asphalt, pitch and bitumen; transportable non-metallic buildings; non-metallic monuments.

Class 20

Furniture, mirrors, picture frames; articles (not included in other classes) of wood, cork, reeds, cane, wicker, horn, bone, ivory, whalebone, shell, amber, mother-of-pearl, meerschaum, and substitutes for all these materials, or of plastics.

Class 21

Household or kitchen utensils and containers (not of precious metal or coated therewith); combs and sponges; brushes (other than paint brushes), brush-making materials; instruments and material for cleaning purposes; steelwool; unprocessed or semi-processed glass (other than glass for construction use); glassware, porcelain and earthenware, not included in other classes.

Class 22

Ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails, sacks not included in other classes; padding and stuffing materials (other than rubber or plastic); raw fibrous textile materials.

Class 23

Yarns and threads for textile use.

Class 24

Cloth and textile articles not included in other classes; bed and table covers.

Class 25

Clothing, boots, shoes and hats.

Class 26

Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks and eyes, pins and needles; artificial flowers.

Class 27

Carpets, rugs, mats and matting, linoleums and other materials for covering floor; wall hangings (non-textile).

Class 28

Games and playthings; athletic and sporting articles not included in other classes; ornaments and decorations of Christmas trees.

Class 29

Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams; eggs, milk and other dairy products; edible oils and fats.

Class 30

Coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, rice, tapioca, sago, coffee substitutes; flour, and preparations made from cereals, bread, biscuits, cakes, pastry and confectionary, ices; honey, treacle; yeast, baking-powder; salt, mustard; vinegar, sauces, condiments; spices, ice.

Class 31

Agricultural, horticultural and forestry products and grains not included in other classes; living animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds, live plants and flowers; foodstuffs for animals, malt.

Class 32

Beer, ale and porter; mineral water and aerated water and other non-alcoholic drinks; fruit drinks and fruit juice; syrup and other preparations for making beverages.

Class 33

Alcoholic beverage (other than beers).

Class 34

Tobacco; smokers' articles; matches.

SERVICES

Class 35

Advertising; business management, business operations and office routine affairs.

Class 36

Insurance; financial; monetary; real estate affairs.

Class 37

Building construction; repair; installation services.

Class 38

Communications.

Class 39

Transport; goods packing, binding and storage; travel arrangement.

Class 40

Material treatment.

Class 41

Education; training; entertainment; sporting and cultural activities.

Class 42

Providing of dining, lodging; services in medical treatment, sanitary and beauty care; veterinary and agronomic services; legal services; scientific and industrial research; computer programming and services not included in other classes.